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## How does a biologist decide when she has enough results to publish a paper?

Biology is so exciting! Answering a question leads to thousand more questions! There is no limit to how much one kind find out about a phenomena&hellip; So I have always wondered how someone can

biology

## English pronuciation of proper Roman names

What are the correct English pronunciations of (Roman emperor) names such as Theodosius, Anastasius, Decius, Leontius, Gratian, Marcian... I am having difficulties with -tiu vs. -siu, -tia vs. -c...

english-language

## Movement to reduce "ing" to "in"

let's face it. More and more people are not saying the silent "g" at the end of swimming, speaking, cooking etc. When will the "ing" become just "in"? It's alre

english-language

## It's not proper.. no such thing as "unseeming(ing)ly"?

I'll keep it simple, as I've learned - the hard way - that schtick does NOT go over well, around here. So.... unseemly |ˌənˈsēmlē| adj. (of behavior or actions) not proper or approp

english-language

## Cooling via the quantum vacuum?

Suppose you had an isolated cloud of gas at a low temperature in a vacuum with no external sources of radiation (e.g. no CMB). The gas would clearly cool via the emission of low-energy photons. But...

physics

## What was El Greco's relationship with the Spanish Inquisition?

2007's biopic El Greco claims the painter was put on trial by the Spanish Inquisition, more specifically Grand Inquisitor Fernando Niño de Guevara, for blasphemy. The film is a heavily fictio

history

## Advantage of doing research in theoretical high energy over other fields?

I am undecided about the field I want to do my PhD in, in graduate school. I am asking because the applications that I am filling ask me to write the intended field of study. I found the people w...

physics

## Electric field of Symmetric Parts

So I'm preparing for a test and one thing that I haven't seen examples of, but know is possible is using Gauss's Law on objects that have symmetric parts. I made up the following question:

physics

## What happens at the subatomic level when energy is added to an atom?

For the sake of simplicity I shall use the hydrogen atom. I know that adding energy to the hydrogen atom means bombarding it with photons. I am curious about what happens to the quarks and electron...

physics

## Rotations in space-time

In Landau's Classical Theory of Fields, one finds the statement: Every rotation in the four-dimensional space can be resolved into six rotations, in the planes $xy,zy,xz,tx,ty,tz$ (just as e

physics

## How to concentrate again after getting stuck at some point

I'm a self-employed IT guy at the moment. My self discipline is quite decent usually, I plan and think a lot before implementing something. I got stuck at some point now, because I didn't fore

personal-productivity

## How to focus without bad habits?

I have a terrible habit, Whenever I am deeply concentrating on something I chew my fingers, Not just a slight munch, but enough that i am splitting the skin. The issue is that I am so focused on...

personal-productivity

## When leveraging the Pomodoro technique

Is there a threshold of the number of Pomodoros you can execute in a sequence before the technique has positive effect? I could imagine that you do not want to use the Pomodoro technique if you h...

personal-productivity

## Hatcher 0.5 without the Tube Lemma?

Can Hatcher 0.5 be proven this way? This was my first proof before I read the posted version that cites the Tube Lemma. Let $F(t,x): I \times X \rightarrow X,$ such that $F(0,x) = f_0(x) = 1_X$,

mathematics

## Arithmetic and Geometric Mean Inequality

Use the AM - GM inequality (no other method is acceptable), to prove that for all positive integers $n$: $$\left(1 +\dfrac{1}{n}\right)^n \leq \left(1 + \dfrac{1}{n+1}\right)^{n+1}$$ I see that i...

mathematics

## How do ribosomes contribute to their own synthesis?

In other words, what products synthesized by ribosomes are actual parts of ribosomes (if any)? How are they involved in their own synthesis otherwise? What is the cycle/chain of products starting...

biology

## How does Acetaldehyde accelerate mitosis?

I read that one of the ways alcohol is carcinogenic is via accelerated mitosis due to acetaldehyde, I was wondering what pathway caused this acceleration?

biology

## Expressing contentment about receiving a letter

Someone wrote to me. I'm writing him back. I want to say, in formal speech, that I'm glad that he wrote to me. How do I do that? I guess I can just say "I'm glad to hear from you"

english-language

## How does the microbial environment in your gut initiate?

Clearly, a zygote does not harbor any microbes. As it develops, and the alimentary canal tissue is differentiated, I logically assume that there is still no microbial activity in the fetus's gut.

biology

## Cardinality for Kleene star and infinite Cartesian products.

Let $X$ be a finite set with at least 2 elements. Then the set of all finite-length "strings", X^* = \bigcup_{L \in \mathbb{Z}^+} \prod_{i=1}^L X_i = \{ (x_1, \ldots, x_L) : L \in \mathbb{

mathematics

## How prevalent is this reversal of "yes" and "no"?

Example: Aren't you going to the store? Where I am from, the correct answer indicating I am going to the store is yes. The contraction "not" is ignored. Is this sort of confusion p

english-language

## How to find all units of $\Bbb Z[e^{2\pi i/5}]$?

Let $\eta = e^{2\pi i/5}$. It was easy to show that $\{\pm 1, \pm \eta, \pm \eta^2\} \subseteq U(\Bbb Z[\eta]$. I'm struggling to show that only elements of norm $1$ are units which in my opinion

mathematics

## Proper conjugation of "to be" in this example

Is the conjugation correct here? I know "A family were there." can be grammatical when "A family" is being treated as a plural noun. But the following example is different. The

english-language

## Difference between "mythical" and "mythological"

What is the difference between "mythical" and "mythological"? I find these two interchangeable. Also, please give some examples.

english-language

## Is it more than a simple technical device that we have at infinite axioms in ZFC?

Take the axiom of Comprehension that was introduced by Zermelo. This, as usually stated has one instance for every single formula. Presumably this is to contain the axiom within first-order logic.

philosophy